Building Sector-Coupled Networks#

The preparation process of the sector-coupled version of the PyPSA-Eur energy system model consists of a group of snakemake rules which are briefly outlined and explained in detail in the sections below.

Not all data dependencies are shipped with the git repository. Instead we provide separate data bundles which can be obtained using the retrieve* rules (Retrieving Data). Having downloaded the necessary data,

  • add_brownfield builds and stores the base network with all buses, HVAC lines and HVDC links, while

Rule add_brownfield#

Prepares brownfield data from previous planning horizon.

Rule add_existing_baseyear#

Adds existing power and heat generation capacities for initial planning horizon.

Rule build_existing_heating_distribution#

Builds table of existing heat generation capacities for initial planning horizon.

Rule build_ammonia_production#

Build historical annual ammonia production per country in ktonNH3/a.

Rule build_biomass_potentials#

Compute biogas and solid biomass potentials for each clustered model region using data from JRC ENSPRESO.

Rule build_biomass_transport_costs#

Reads biomass transport costs for different countries of the JRC report.

“The JRC-EU-TIMES model. Bioenergy potentials for EU and neighbouring countries.” (2015)

converts them from units ‘EUR per km/ton’ -> ‘EUR/ (km MWh)’

assuming as an approximation energy content of wood pellets

@author: bw0928

Rule build_clustered_population_layouts#

Build population layouts for all clustered model regions as total as well as split by urban and rural population.

Rule build_cop_profiles#

Build coefficient of performance (COP) time series for air- or ground-sourced heat pumps.

The COP is a function of the temperature difference between source and sink.

The quadratic regression used is based on Staffell et al. (2012)

Rule build_energy_totals#

Build total energy demands per country using JRC IDEES, eurostat, and EEA data.

Rule build_heat_totals#

Approximate heat demand for all weather years.

Rule build_gas_input_locations#

Build import locations for fossil gas from entry-points, LNG terminals and production sites with data from SciGRID_gas and Global Energy Monitor.

Rule build_gas_network#

Preprocess gas network based on data from bthe SciGRID_gas project (

Rule build_daily_heat_demand#

Build heat demand time series using heating degree day (HDD) approximation.

Rule build_hourly_heat_demand#

Build hourly heat demand time series from daily ones.

Rule build_district_heat_share#

Build district heat shares at each node, depending on investment year.

Rule build_industrial_distribution_key#

Build spatial distribution of industries from Hotmaps database.

Rule build_industrial_energy_demand_per_country_today#

Build industrial energy demand per country.

Rule build_industrial_energy_demand_per_node_today#

Build industrial energy demand per model region.

Rule build_industrial_energy_demand_per_node#

Build industrial energy demand per model region.

Rule build_industrial_production_per_country_tomorrow#

Build future industrial production per country.

Rule build_industrial_production_per_country#

Build industrial production per country.

Rule build_industrial_production_per_node#

Build industrial production per model region.

Rule build_industry_sector_ratios#

Build specific energy consumption by carrier and industries.

Rule build_population_layouts#

Build mapping between cutout grid cells and population (total, urban, rural).

Rule build_population_weighted_energy_totals#

Distribute country-level energy demands by population.

Rule build_retro_cost#

This script calculates the space heating savings through better insulation of the thermal envelope of a building and corresponding costs for different building types in different countries.


The energy savings calculations are based on the

EN ISO 13790 / seasonal method

  • calculations heavily oriented on the TABULAWebTool which is following the EN ISO 13790 / seasonal method

Basic Equations#

The basic equations:

The Energy needed for space heating E_space [W/m²] are calculated as the sum of heat losses and heat gains:

E_space = H_losses - H_gains

Heat losses constitute from the losses through heat transmission (H_tr [W/m²K]) (this includes heat transfer through building elements and thermal bridges) and losses by ventilation (H_ve [W/m²K]):

H_losses = (H_tr + H_ve) * F_red * (T_threshold - T_averaged_d_heat) * d_heat * 1/365

F_red : reduction factor, considering non-uniform heating [°C], p.16 chapter 2.6 [-] T_threshold : heating temperature threshold, assumed 15 C d_heat : Length of heating season, number of days with daily averaged temperature below T_threshold T_averaged_d_heat : mean daily averaged temperature of the days within heating season d_heat

Heat gains constitute from the gains by solar radiation (H_solar) and internal heat gains (H_int) weighted by a gain utilisation factor nu:

H_gains = nu * (H_solar + H_int)


The script has the following structure:

  1. fixed parameters are set

  2. prepare data, bring to same format

  3. calculate space heat demand depending on additional insulation material

  4. calculate costs for corresponding additional insulation material

  5. get cost savings per retrofitting measures for each sector by weighting with heated floor area

Rule build_salt_cavern_potentials#

Build salt cavern potentials for hydrogen storage.

Technical Potential of Salt Caverns for Hydrogen Storage in Europe CC-BY 4.0

Figure 6. Distribution of potential salt cavern sites across Europe with their corresponding energy densities (cavern storage potential divided by the volume).

Figure 7. Total cavern storage potential in European countries classified as onshore, offshore and within 50 km of shore.

The regional distribution is taken from the map (Figure 6) and scaled to the capacities from the bar chart split by nearshore (<50km from sea), onshore (>50km from sea), offshore (Figure 7).

Rule build_sequestration_potentials#

Build regionalised geological sequestration potential for carbon dioxide using data from CO2Stop.

Rule build_shipping_demand#

Build regional demand for international navigation based on outflow volume of ports.

Rule build_solar_thermal_profiles#

Build solar thermal collector time series.

Rule build_temperature_profiles#

Build time series for air and soil temperatures per clustered model region.

Rule build_transport_demand#

Build land transport demand per clustered model region including efficiency improvements due to drivetrain changes, time series for electric vehicle availability and demand-side management constraints.

Rule cluster_gas_network#

Cluster gas transmission network to clustered model regions.

Rule prepare_sector_network#

Adds all sector-coupling components to the network, including demand and supply technologies for the buildings, transport and industry sectors.